Urology (from the Greek oûron, "urine" and λογία "study") is the branch of medicine focused on urogenital tract of both man and woman, and the reproductive tract of man. Urology covers the following organs: kidneys, adrenal glands, ureters, bladder, urethra and male reproductive organs (testicles, prostate and penis).

What are the symptoms of the presence of kidney stone? 

The symptoms depend on the location, size and shape of stone and in some cases can be completely absent. The most common symptoms are: sharp, intense and sudden pain, which is called renal colic, and the presence of blood in the urine. Most stones can be completely calm and as such do not cause any problems. But very little gems cause unbearable pain. Extremely small stones (sand) in the urinary canals cause colic, which is spread along the loin and to the groins. Sand in the bladder causes the uncomfortable feeling and the need to urinate. These pains are often accompanied by nausea and vomiting, sweating, fever and tingling sensation while urinating.


What causes the stone / sand to form? 

Factors that can influence the creation of stone / sand are: high intake of calcium, phosphate, oxalate diet, genetic predestination, obstruction and urinary tract infections, enlarged prostate, a profession, not sufficient enough fluid intake and climate areas with high air temperatures that lead to loss of fluids by sweating, which increases the urine concentration.


What treatments of stone / sand in the kidney are there? 

The main and first thing to do is to begin with increased fluid intake and drug treatment (nonsteroidal inflammatory drugs and alpha-blockers), if it comes to the first stone. If the pain gets stronger you should consult an urologist in choosing any of the treatments: ESWL, ureteroscopy, nephrolithotomy or nephrolithotripsy, percutaneous or open surgery.


What is the prostate and what does it do? 

The prostate is a gland of the male reproductive system. It is located between the bladder and rectum. It is the size and shape of chestnut with dimensions 3.5x4.5x2.5cm and weight up to 25 grams. The function of the prostate is to store and secrete a slightly alkaline fluid that enters into the composition of the ejaculate (sperm) and has a significant function in pH neutralization of vaginal tract during fertilization. Androgens (male sex hormones) are necessary for the normal prostate function, which also has the muscle fibers that support ejaculation.


What is benign prostates hyperplasia (BPH)? 

The term "benign" indicates that this is not a pathological process (cancer or serious infection), while the term "hyperplasia" means enlargement. It is the enlargement of the prostate cells, which increases dimensions of the prostate itself, usually in men between 45 and 75 years of age. When the increase is significant, there may be obstruction of urine flow, which leads to the most common symptoms in the form of a weakened urine stream, prolonged urination, strain before starting urination, feeling of incomplete urination, sudden urge to urinate. It can also be present at night.


What are the treatments for benign prostate hyperplasia? 

Lifestyle changes, medications (alpha blockers and 5α-reductase inhibitors.), minimally-invasive treatment (Transurethral microwave thermotherapy (TUMT) and TransUrethral Needle Ablation (TUNA)), or urologic surgery (transuretral resection of prostate (TURP) or laser treatment).


What is erectile dysfunction (ED)? 

Erectile dysfunction (ED) or male impotence is a sexual dysfunction characterized by the impossibility of development and maintenance of penis erection for satisfactory sexual intercourse. Penile erection occurs as a consequence of blood inflow in the sponge-like bodies within the penis and is the result of a signal of sexual arousal that comes from the brain. ED can be successfully treated equally regardless of age. There are more than 160 million men suffering from ED worldwide, and only 10% of them seek help.


What are the risk factors for the development of erectile dysfunction? 

Some "lifestyle habits" can affect erections. These include smoking, excessive alcohol consumption and obesity. The most important organic causes for ED are cardiovascular disease, diabetes, neurological problems (trauma during prostatectomy), hypogonadism (hormone insufficiency). It can be a consequence of ED drugs, or inadequate medicament usage. It is important to note that erectile dysfunction may represent a signal for a cardiac disease. There is also a psychological impotence, when full erection mechanism is preserved, but it does not work because of the patient's state of consciousness.


What are the treatments for erectile dysfunction? 

Treatment depends on the cause and is individual. The patient with ED and the urologist will decide which treatment is optimal: oral pharmacotherapy (PDE5 inhibitors, sildenafil (Viagra), tadalafil (Cialis) and vardenafil (Levitra) or apomorphine) typical pharmacotherapy (liniment substances), vacuum pumps, injections intrakavernozne, combined therapy or penile prosthesis.


What is urinary incontinence (UI)? 

Urinary incontinence (UI) is the inability to control urine retention, which leads to unwilling discharge of urine. It is present in both men and women, especially after the age of 60. Assessments are that  more than 250 million people worldwide have this problem. The most common types of UI are: stress, urgent, overflow, reflex and mixed UI.


What are the treatments exist for urinary incontinence? 

After the type of UI is identified the selection of treatment follows. In many cases a simple weight loss can be extremely useful. Kegel's exercises (to strengthen pelvic muscles) are particularly beneficial to pregnant women. Change of food intake, urinating only in certain intervals, electrical stimulants and drugs may give satisfactory results. Final option is surgery, after all other alternatives have been unsuccessful.


What is infertility? 

Infertility primarily refers to the biological inability of a person to contribute to conception and is becoming an increasing problem that young couples are facing. Infertility is the result of problems that can be male or female or of both partners simultaneously. The problem with men is up to 40%, with women 40%  also, and the problem can exists with partners simultaneously in about 20% of cases.


What are the factors of male infertility? 

Pretesticular factors: hypogonadism (low levels of male sex hormones), smoking, alcohol or drugs. Testicular factors: characteristics of sperm (teratospermia (abnormal morphology), oligospermia (reduced volume), azoospermia (absence of sperm) and genetic mutations of the Y chromosome. Posttesticular factors: obstruction or lack of vas deferens (sperm duct conductor), infection and retrograde ejaculation (sperm going into bladder).


Which tests for infertility are being done? 

Primary infertility testing means at least two adequate sperm tests. When a couple should be worried if pregnancy does not occur and when to begin testing is a question. Previous position was that the couple should wait a year, but considering the fact that today a lot of marriages are late, 6 months without intentional pregnancy achieved is a period sufficient to assume that the problem exists and to begin the examination and treatment, if necessary. Given the fact that the problem of male infertility becomes more and more present, there are various tests that can be done: bacteriological, hormonal, immunological, genetic, anatomical, physiological and embryological.


What are the treatments for infertility? 

Chlamydia, ureaplasma, bacteria, varicocele (abnormal vein enlargement of that is in the scrotum draining the testicles, heating them, and therefore affecting the sperm) are the problems that must be resolved (antibiotics, surgery for varicocele). It is significant to stop the consumption of cigarettes, coffee, alcohol, change of narrow underwear with wider. Sperm analysis should be done in 3 months, because spermatogenesis takes 72 days (flue and high fever may influence the results).  Immediately begin continuous intake of vitamins (E, C, B12, B9), mineral (selenium and zinc) and amino acids (L-carnitine, acetyl-L-carnitine and L-arginine). Surgical therapy has a significant role in therapy of men’s infertility. Diagnosed varicocele is surgically  solved with ligaturing the testicular vein in the groin level. The operation is short, it can be done in local anesthesia, complications are rare and few. The intervention is often done laparoscopic and is a method for testicles that have not descended.


What are condyloma? 

Genital warts are another name for condyloma who fall into one of the most common viral sexually transmitted diseases in the world. They look like small blisters pink color (the color of meat) (pointed kondilomi), and may be manifested only by changing the color of tissue without any knob (flat kondilomi). They can be very small and can appear in larger groups and blistering may occur on the glans penis, the foreskin, scrotum or anus. Also, can lead to itching or discomfort in the genital area, or bleeding during sexual intercourse.


What causes condyloma? 

The virus that causes condyloma is the human papillomavirus (HPV). There are 130 different types of this virus, while only type 6 and type 11 cause over 90% of all infections. Statistics say that when edxposed to HPV during sexual intercourse, two-thirds get infected with the virus. Genital warts usually develop in the first three months after the sexual intercouse, but in some cases, depending on the immunity of an infected person, the period of idle skills take years. The virus can be transmitted during skin contact with the skin of diseased people, therefore the condom does not guarantee protection, but significantly reduces the risk of HPV. It is estimated that the virus infects 60% of sexually active young people, of which the most aged between 20 and 24 years.


What treatments of condyloma exist? 

Treatment or removing condyloma is quite successful, but there is no cure or way that will forever remove the HPV from the body. Removing condyloma is quite simple and there are several ways such as cryotherapy (freezing), electrocauterization (burning), laser treatment, surgical treatment, or liquid podophyllin based preparations.